By Imants Baruss, Stephen Vletas

Changes of cognizance is a fresh and richly analytic research into the character of cognitive truth. Imants Baruss explores a variety of manifestations of realization with rational and empirical rigor starting with extra usual states reminiscent of considering, sound asleep, dreaming and carrying on with on into hypnosis, trance, psychedelic reviews, transcendence, and studies concerning demise. This complete assessment of altered states examines realization from the physiological, cognitive, and experiential issues of view. Readers will achieve from this attractive textual content an enriched figuring out of attention, fact, and the medical exercise.

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Attention” (Klinger, 1978, p. 235). Spontaneous thinking consists of thoughts that “just pop into our minds” (Klinger, 1990, p. 76). Klinger and his colleagues have found that “about two thirds” (Klinger, 1990, p. 78) of their participants “rated a majority of their thoughts as mostly deliberate, but nearly a third rated a majority of their thoughts as mostly spontaneous” (Klinger, 1990, p. 78). Overall, about one third of a person’s thoughts are more spontaneous than deliberate. 34 ALTERATIONS OF CONSCIOUSNESS Thinking can be either externally or internally focused.

The usual length of time spent in a flotation tank is about 45 minutes, although a participant can leave at any time before then. In chamber REST a person lies on a bed in a completely dark room with reduced sound for a number of hours, with 24 being a frequently used time period. “Food, water and toilet facilities” (Suedfeld & Borrie, 1999) are available inside the room. Again, there is an intercom that “permits a monitor nearby to respond to questions or requests, and to help the subject leave the chamber WAKEFULNESS 45 before the scheduled end of the session if desired” (Suedfeld & Borrie, 1999, p.

Each of these metaphors emphasizes a different aspect of the self-perception process, although the balance between them differs among people. For example, in a number of studies “only about 35% of the subjects show a clear self-enhancement bias, whereas about 50% are relatively accurate and about 15% actually show self-diminishment bias” (Robins & John, 1997, p. 669). The matter of introspection becomes even more muddied if we ask not about access to the contents of people’s experiences but about the structure and dynamics of their minds.

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