By G. Oates

This publication on fuel turbine know-how has been a best-seller because it was once first released. It now incorporates a finished set of software program courses that supplement the textual content with difficulties and layout analyses. software program subject matters integrated are surroundings courses, quasi-one-dimensional circulate courses (ideal constant-area warmth interplay, adiabatic constant-area circulate with friction, rocket nozzle functionality, general surprise waves, indirect surprise waves), fuel turbine courses (engine cycle research and engine off-design performance), and rocket combustion courses (Tc and workstation given, Hc and laptop given, isentropic expansion).
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Two special cases are considered in the following sections. Ideal constant-area heat interaction--thermal choking. In the limit where the flow may be considered to be ideal (Cf= 0), Eq. 92) Clearly, when the stagnation temperature increases, f ( M 2) must be larger than f(M2). It is hence of interest to investigate the form of the function f ( M 2) to see if it is always possible to increase the stagnation temperature. Straightforward differentiation shows that O f ( M 2 ) / O M = 0 at M = 1, so also noting that f(0) = 0, f(1) = 1 / 2 ( y + 1), and f(oa) = (~, - 1 ) / 2 7 2 , f ( m 2) can be plotted vs M as indicated in Fig.

68) Some important behaviors concerning the variation of stagnation properties in ducts can be illuminated by applying Eq. 57) directly to the conditions at t I and t 2 (Fig. 7). 69) where by definition s I = s t and s 2 In the special case of adlabaUc flow in the duct, from Eqs. 65) T,2 = Tq. Then = 1 . S, . 70) The second law, or equivalently Eq. 63), showed that when shear exists in an adiabatic flow, s 2 > s 1. 71) THERMODYNAMICS AND FLUID FLOWS t2 tI Fig. 7 43 Stagnation conditions at two axial locations.

R = 49,700 = 8317 ft 2 Ibm s 2 Ibm-mole. °R m2 kg s 2 kg-mole. 41) It should be noted from Eq. 39) that when a gas is in a regime where dissociation is occurring, it is not, strictly speaking, a perfect gas. This is because dissociation changes the value of M and hence of R. However, if no dissociation occurs but substantial vibrational excitation occurs, then the gas would be perfect, but not calorically perfect. The behavior of a perfect gas may be illuminated by applying the relationships of Sec.

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