By Sascha W. Felix

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Aspergillus flavus) will produce mycotoxins such as aflatoxins, zearaleone, fumonisin, ochratoxin, etc of which aflatoxin B1 is probably the most toxic. , 1995). , 1994). Levels as low as 20 ppm of fumonisin can be toxic to shrimps. Antinutritional Factors (ANF) from Vegetable Ingredients Antinutritional factors (ANF) in vegetable ingredients are rather complex as there is a vast array of toxic substances (Tacon, 1985, 1987). Insoluble fibres, soluble fibres, enzyme inhibitors, saponins, lectins, tennins, phytic acid and gossypol are the most important anti-inhibitors factors and are transmitted via the feed (Krogdahl, 1989).

Then suitable quality agricultural lime are added according to soil acidity. Five tons per ha of chicken manure and 35 kg per ha of 14-14-14 (NPK) are added subsequently. The prepared area is covered with a 5 cm thickness of rice straw. Cuttings are then planted at 30 cm intervals. (iv) Poisoning Predators and Pests Before shrimp PL/juveniles are stocked, eggs and larvae of competitors such as fishes, crabs etc. should be killed by poisoning. It is paramount importance because most of these organisms have also been proved to be the carriers of white spot syndrome virus.

Moreover, antibiotics like oxytetracycline can depress the immune system (Anonymous, 1994). The DNA synthesis of mitogen-stimulated pronephric cells was reduced to about 50 percent at therapeutic doses of oxytetracycline. , 1989). Horizontal Transmission of Pathogens through Feed Transmission of diseases through the feed is a major concern for the farmers and the feed producers. For years now, Salmonella has been carefully monitored in feed ingredients to avoid contamination through the feed. Serious losses in poultry farming have been attributed to Salmonella infection.

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