By M. Yavuz Corapcioglu

This booklet is the 3rd quantity of a sequence: ''Advances in Porous Media''. Our aim is to give in-depth evaluation papers that provide finished insurance to the sphere of shipping in porous media. This sequence treats shipping phenomena in porous media as an interdisciplinary subject. hence, ''Advances in Porous Media'' will proceed to advertise the extension of ideas and purposes in a single quarter to others, slicing throughout conventional barriers. the target of every bankruptcy is to check the paintings performed on a selected subject together with theoretical, numerical in addition to experimental reports. The individuals of this quantity, as for prior ones, come from a number of backgrounds: civil and environmental engineering, and earth and environmental sciences. The articles are geared toward all scientists and engineers in a number of diverse fields focused on the basics and functions of procedures in porous media.

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The microorganisms will also begin acclimating to the Modeling subsurface biodegradation 17 new conditions created by the NAPL constituents. Because the NAPL components are Ukely to be different from the substrate the microorganisms normally metabolize, they must begin synthesizing new enzymes capable of acting on the dissolved NAPL constituents. In addition to being chemically different substrates, the NAPL constituents may affect other environmental conditions such as pH, redox potential, and ionic strength.

Thus, the higher the available surface area, the faster biodegradation will proceed (Atlas, 1981). Microorganisms may increase the available surface area and increase NAPL dissolution by releasing emulsifying agents (Atlas, 1981). Biodegradation at NAPL/water interfaces is typically limited by nutrient availabihty (Atlas, 1981). If the NAPL constituents are toxic, then microorganisms may not exist at the interface, but may accumulate at a distance at which the toxic constituent concentration is low enough that they can survive.

Biodegradation reactions can change the pH of aquifers if the amount of oxidized material is large enough (Bouwer and McCarty, 1984). , 1988; Focht, 1988). The pH can be controlled in laboratory experiments so that biodegradation modeling is relatively unaffected by pH. As a consequence, most models of biodegradation do not exphcitly consider pH. In field systems, the pH should be determined before modeling begins. If biodegradation reactions are expected to significantly alter pH, then pH shifts should be included in the model, especially if electron acceptors other than oxygen are involved.

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