By Peter W. Hawkes

Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics merges long-running serials-Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics and Advances in Optical and Electron Microscopy. This sequence beneficial properties prolonged articles at the physics of electron units (especially semiconductor devices), particle optics at low and high energies, microlithography, snapshot technology and electronic photo processing, electromagnetic wave propagation, electron microscopy, and the computing tools utilized in a majority of these domain names

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1975) and Schmidt et al. (1992). By deriving and solving systems of differential equations for recombination rates, they found that the variation in integrated peak area IPEAK would vary proportionally to the laser excitation power L as IPEAK ∝ Lm . In terms of CL, the equation should be rewritten as IPEAK ∝ ibm . (24) From the value of the power-law exponent m, a solid-state process that leads to the emission peak can be determined. In general, when 1 m < 2, the emission is a free- or bound-exciton or direct band-edge emission; when m < 1, the emission is a free-to-bound defect-type or DAP-type emission.

Placing a CCD camera at this dispersion plane allows a large portion of the spectrum to fall onto the CCD, and thus the spectrum can be measured in parallel. The range of wavelengths that can be measured depends on the dispersion of the monochromator-grating combination and the size of the CCD array. Due to the parallel acquisition, CCDs are thus very fast tools for acquiring spectra; therefore, they are useful for materials that might suffer beam damage from 26 PARISH AND RUSSELL TABLE 1 M ODES OF C ATHODOLUMINESCENCE Mode Detector Monochromator Beam Spectroscopic imaging Panchromatic imaging Serial spectroscopy Parallel spectroscopy Spectral imaging PMT or diode PMT or diode PMT or diode CCD array CCD array Fixed None Scanned Fixed Fixed Scanned for image Scanned for image Fixed or scanned (nonimaging) Fixed or scanned (nonimaging) Scanned for image CCD, Charge-coupled device; PMT, photomultiplier tube.

Phonon energies h¯ ω in semiconductors are typically (Yacobi and Holt, 1990) a few tens of meV. In CL, phonons are manifested as satellite peaks spaced at integer multiples of the phonon energy from the main peak, in low-temperature spectra. , 1995). ” Also marked are phonon replicas of the 2 . This indicates that the emission line has energy exciton lines, such as XTO 2 emission line minus the energy of the TO phonon in the equal to the XNP lattice. Thus, phonons can contribute to the rich substructure of emission peaks and lines observed in low-temperature CL, and the possibility of their presence should always be considered.

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