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The analyst needs to attempt to reduce the effects of such uncertainties upon the predictions (see also Section 7) but must be aware that they cannot be totally eliminated. Uncertainties in plant data are important and are usually available from historical records of actual operating plants. These can be included in the statistical uncertainty analysis and may be used also for the estimation of similar uncertainties for plants that are under design. Measurements of different operational parameters with higher accuracy can also be utilized for such a purpose.

For example, subchannel and porous media codes can be used to analyse localized flow effects in representative fuel assemblies such as the influence of spacer grids and flow blockages on local heat transfer. Computational fluid dynamics codes may be used to analyse effects such as mixing in downcomer regions. Although there may be some overlap in the capabilities of these specialized codes, subchannel and porous media codes have historically been developed and validated for specific reactor bundle designs, while CFD codes are much more general in scope.

The original plant licensing basis may have been recognized as inadequate or may no longer be met. Detailed guidance covering each of the topics discussed here is outside the scope of this Safety Report, as decisions will be determined by national policy and national circumstances. However, the following approach has been used in some countries for safety analyses of existing plants: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) Use of up to date safety analysis tools, since they best represent real physical behaviour.

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