By John J. McCarthy

This e-book describes Optimality thought from the head down, explaining and exploring the crucial premises of OT and the consequences that persist with from them. Examples are drawn from phonology, morphology, and syntax, however the emphasis all through is at the idea instead of the examples, on figuring out what's unique approximately OT and on equipping readers to use it, expand it, and critique it of their personal components of curiosity. The book's assurance extends to paintings on first- and second-language acquisition, phonetics and practical phonology, computational linguistics, ancient linguistics, and sociolinguistics. Chapters finish with wide feedback for additional studying, categorized by means of subject, and are supplemented through an immense bibliography (over 800 items).

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Y/b > Y/a The constraint alignment is the following pair of constraint hierarchies: Cx = *X/z » ... » *X/b » *X/a CY = *Y/a » *Y/b » ... » *Y/z The notation XId describes a linguistic element that combines the properties d and X, such as a d that occurs in position or context X. The notation *X/d denotes a constraint that XId violates. Three different relations are symbolized in (7). " It is a relation between constraints. The other two relations, ">" and ">," are relations between linguistic objects.

Z, the harmonic alignment of D± and D2 is the following pair of harmony scales: Hx = X/a > X/b >-... > X/z HY = Y/z > ... > Y/b > Y/a The constraint alignment is the following pair of constraint hierarchies: Cx = *X/z » ... » *X/b » *X/a CY = *Y/a » *Y/b » ... » *Y/z The notation XId describes a linguistic element that combines the properties d and X, such as a d that occurs in position or context X. The notation *X/d denotes a constraint that XId violates. Three different relations are symbolized in (7).

Cf. ta /aorta/ i. ta ! ta DEP : * Remarks Faithful * il. ta iii. ]6rta. i) violates ONSET. ii), violates a higher-ranking markedness constraint, CM. i) as optimal. ) This is a blocking interaction. By dominating ONSET, C M blocks the process of glottal-stop epenthesis. In other words, ? v syllable. Interactions like these are abundant throughout grammar: mark the plural with -s except when there is a lexical plural form; wh must move except when movement is prohibited (say, because [Spec, CP] is already filled).

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