By Dennis R. Preston, Nancy Niedzielski

Sociophonetics is a sub-branch of phonetics that has attracted loads of consciousness lately. Advances in speech technological know-how and technological simulations let more and more refined reviews of language touch and alter. relatively on the point of pronunciation, those stories exhibit that language kind is strong and socially embedded. even though the e-book assumes a few wisdom of easy acoustics and variationist reviews, the final creation presents a evaluation of practices within the box, together with these of assortment, research, and interpretation.

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9 This evidence, combined with that adduced earlier, clearly supports an ordering of *ǀ raising followed by *nj diphthongization. However, the chronological and dialectological evidence suggests that *Ư BITE diphthongized before *Ɲ FEED rose. Further evidence for this chronology comes, paradoxically, from a handful of forms in which *Ɲ raising is attested quite early, especially in eastern and south-eastern sources, as collated by Weána (2004). , friar, inquire, entire, choir, contrive, dice), many ending in /r/, /Ɲ/ raised to [Ư] early enough to merge with *Ư, and subsequently diphthongize.

By Luick 1964: §489, Wolfe 1972, and Cercignani 1981) has been based in large measure on the presumption that sounds once merged 28 Alice Faber, Marianna Di Paolo, and Catherine T. Best cannot unmerge. This presumption is only valid for true mergers, not for near mergers. Here we have the crux of the matter. 3c). However, if the speech form in which NAME and DAY contrast with FEED, HEAP, and SPEAK is a direct descendant of one in which HEAP, SPEAK, and NAME and/or DAY were truly merged, there are severe dif¿culties.

FEED parts of Cumberland, Lancs, parts of NW Yorks, Dorset, Essex 3. 2 Merger 1 HEAP/SPEAK/ NAME/DAY vs. FEED SED site Ch 6 (Hanmer, Flintshire) 4. 3 Resplit + Merger 1 HEAP/SPEAK vs. NAME/DAY vs. FEED Central Yorks and Lincolnshire, Westmorland 5. 2 Merger 2 HEAP/SPEAK/ NAME/FEED vs. DAY Scattered locations in N Yorks, Hamps, Staffordshire 6. 3 Resplit + Merger 2 HEAP/SPEAK/ FEED vs. NAME vs. DAY East Anglia, Kent, Wilts, Somerset, Oxfordshire, Herefordshire; earlier and independently in far North 7.

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