By Stella A. Stiegeler BSc (eds.)

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The berm is usually flat (although it may slope gently landwards), is of variable width, and is characterized by a marked break of slope at the seaward edge. Berms are created by the action of *constructive waves but their growth is not a very rapid process. A beach of coarse sand, having a steeper gradient than one of finer material, will develop a berm more rapidly, since wave action is restricted to a narrower width of beach. See also beach ridge. beryl. A hexagonal mineral of composition BeJAhSi601s found in granitic rocks and *pegmatites.

Ectoprocts have a potential use in micropalaeontological stratigraphy and correlation. Buchan spells. Periods of the year when temperatures were anomalously cool or warm as deduced by Buchan working on 50 years of records prior to 1867 for SE Scotland. , and 3-14 Dec. Whilst there is some evidence of such periodicities from year to year they are not sufficiently persistent or clearly defined to specific dates and so Buchan's spells are largely of climatological curiosity only. Buchan zone. 1). bulk modulus.

Bottom current. A current that flows close to the sea floor or within the lowermost layers of water in deep-sea areas. The term has also been used to describe the currents over shelf areas 36 that arise owing to density-driven flow, tidal flow, or wave-induced flow. In the case of deep-water bottom currents, flow velocities have been calculated theoretically, others have been measured using current meters or special floats. Bottom flow in part of the Antarctic bottom current can attain 3 em/sec but is usually much less.

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